Since 1997 of release
Repair and car operation
- Cars Saab 9-5
Cars Saab 9-5 - the summary
Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
Poddomkrachivanie/posting and emergency transportation of the car
Start of the engine from the auxiliary power supply
Automobile химикалии, oils and greasings
Diagnostics of malfunctions
+ Controls and operation receptions
+ Options and car routine maintenance
+ The engine
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
+ The power supply system and release of the fulfilled gases
+ Systems of an electric equipment of the engine
+ Manual box of a gear change
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
Technology of service
There are some techniques of performance of procedures of maintenance service and car repairs on which the reader can find references in the text of the given Management. Following by it will make work of more effective, will allow to organise in the best way a workplace and qualitatively to execute various technical procedures.
As fixture are called nuts, bolts, hairpins and the screws serving for connection of two or more details. At work with fixture it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any fixture this or that kind контрящих and fixing adaptations is applied. It can be lock washers, counternuts, lock tags or fixing компаунд for a carving. All used carving fixture should be absolutely pure and equal, with not broken carving and not rounded corners шестигранных heads which the wrench is put on. It is necessary to take for a rule obligatory replacement of the damaged nuts and bolts new. Special self-locking nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to a reuse, as at отдавании lose the контрящие properties.
Prirzhavevshie bolts and nuts for their simplification отдавания and in order to avoid their damage should be processed special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use for this purpose turpentine which it is convenient to put from the special small canister with a long nouse. After wetting of the "become attached" fixture by getting structure before starting to it отдаванию, it is necessary to give to structure within several minutes to impregnate the oxidised contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down a chisel, to cut ножовкой or to remove by means of special гайколома.
Carving connections, which are exposed to the big differences of temperatures (for example, valve EGR, a ljambda-probe, a final collector, nuts турбокомпрессора), tend to привариванию that complicates dismantle at following service. For simplification отдавания such fixture grease it before a tightening greasing Molycote 1000 30 20 971 or Never Seize.
At cutting of a head of a bolt or обламывании on assemblage, the rest of a carving part it is possible to drill or take hairpins by means of the special tool. The majority metalwork and repair trucks can undertake performance of this, also as well as others (for example, restoration of the broken carving in carving apertures), repair procedures.
Flat and lock washers at assemblage should be established always into place in the same order and the same way, as earlier. The damaged washers always replace new. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example, aluminium), thin sheet metal or plastic always it is necessary to establish flat washers.
The sizes of fixture
For many reasons manufacturers of cars all apply metric fixture more widely and more widely. However, it is important to know a difference between fixture of standard SAE used sometimes (named also American) and, more universal in system of measures metric fixture as, despite external similarity, they are not interchangeable.
All bolts as standard SAE, and metric, are classified on diameter, a step of a carving and length. For example, bolt SAE 1/2-13x1 has half-inch in diameter, 13 coils of a carving on one inch and length of 1 inch. Metric bolt М12-1.75x25 has diameter of 12 mm, a step of a carving of 1.75 mm and length of 25 mm. Both bolts are outwardly almost identical, however are not interchangeable.
In addition to the listed signs bolts can be identified by survey of their head. The distance between лысками heads of a metric bolt is measured in mm, whereas at a bolt of standard SAE - in inches (the same is fair and for nuts). As consequence, the wrench under standard SAE is not necessary for use with metric fixture, and on the contrary.
The sizes/marks of a class of durability standard (SAE and USS) bolts
The sizes/marks of a class of durability of metric bolts
Besides, on heads большей parts of bolts of standard SAE usually are available the radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of a tightening of a bolt (durability degree). The more quantity of notches, the above admissible effort (on cars bolts with degree of durability from 0 to 5 are usually applied). The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code which is usually cast on a bolt head.
Marks of a class of durability of bolts (above - standard/SAE/USS, below - metric)
Also on labels of a class of durability of a nut of standard SAE it is possible to distinguish from the metric. Dot labels are applied to identification of durability of nuts of standard SAE, проштамповываемые on one of face surfaces of a nut while marks of metric nuts are made with the help besides figures. Than quantity of points, or the above value of a digital code, the above admissible effort of a tightening of a nut more.
End faces of metric hairpins also are marked according to a class of their durability. Large hairpins are marked by a digital code whereas marks are put on smaller in the form of a geometrical figure.
Marks of a class of durability of metric hairpins
It is necessary to notice that the considerable part of fixture, in particular a class of durability from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case unique way of difference of fixture of standard SAE from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or сравнивание carvings with reference.
It is necessary to remember that under classification SAE only small fixture gets. The large fixture with not a metric carving is fixture of American standard USS.
As the fixture of the same geometrical size (as standards SAE or USS, and metric) can have various classes of durability, at replacement by the car of bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to pay attention to conformity of a class of durability of established new fixture to a class of durability of the old.
Procedure and order of a tightening of carving connections
The tightening большей should be made parts of carving connections with the efforts defined by requirements of Specifications, resulted in the beginning of each chapter of the given Management (it is necessary to understand as effort of a tightening of fixture put to it at a tightening a twisting moment). The tightening with excessive effort can lead to infringement of integrity of fixture whereas недотягивание conducts to unreliability of connection of interfaced components. Bolts, screws and hairpins, depending on their material and diameter of a carving part, usually have strictly certain admissible efforts of a tightening, many of which as already it was mentioned above, are resulted in Specifications in the beginning of each chapter. For a tightening of the fixture which has been not mentioned in Specifications, it is necessary to use the map of the admissible moments of rotation resulted more low. The values resulted in the table are focused on fixture of classes of durability 2 and 3 (more high-class fixture supposes a tightening with the big effort), besides, it is meant that the tightening dry (with not greased carving) fixture in steel or cast (not aluminium) a detail is made.
Efforts of a tightening of metric carvings
Efforts of a tightening of trumpet carvings
Efforts of a tightening of carvings of standards SAE and USS
Any fixture located on a perimetre detail (such as bolts of fastening of a head of cylinders, the pallet картера and various covers), in order to avoid detail deformation it is necessary to give and be tightened in strictly certain order described in corresponding heads of the Management. If this order is not stipulated, in order to avoid a component curvature it is necessary to adhere described below procedure. At the first stage tighten all bolts or nuts by hand. Then each element of fixture by turns hold on on one complete revolution, and transition from one bolt/nut to another should be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first bolt/nut, it is necessary to repeat procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half-turn. Continue to operate in the same manner, tightening each bolt/nut this time already on a turn quarter for one approach until all of them will not appear tightened with demanded effort. At отдавании fixture also it is necessary to adhere to the described procedure, but operating upside-down.
Dismantling of components
Dismantling of all components should be carried out in such manner that at assemblage each detail could be established on its former place and correct image. Remember prominent features of appearance, in case of need make landing marks of the details which installation can be into place made in the ambiguous image (to such elements the persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft) concerns, for example. The arrangement of the removed details on a pure surface in that order in which their removal was made will be good idea. Useful there will be also a drawing up of the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photographing subject to dismantling or component removal.
At fixture removal try to mark its initial position on assemblage. Often immediate installation of fixture and washers on a former place after removal of a corresponding detail allows to avoid mess at assemblage. In the absence of such possibility, all fixture should be put in specially prepared for this purpose, the box broken into marked sections, or it is simple on the separate marked capacities. Such line of action appears especially useful at work with the components consisting of set of fine details, such as the generator, клапанный the mechanism, the panel of devices or elements of a decorative covering of salon.
At separation of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to mark separate wires or plaits of electroconducting with the help изоляционной tapes with the digital on it digital or alphabetic code.
On all cars of a lining are applied to hermetic sealing of a place of a joint of interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serve for prevention of leaks of oils and liquids and maintenance in elevated pressure or depression assemblage.
Before installation it is required to cover usually such linings liquid or pastelike sealing компаундом. Often under the influence of time, temperatures or pressure occurs so strong прикипание to each other interfaced surfaces that division of details becomes an exigeant problem. To dismantling of such knots helps обстукивание them outside on perimetre of a place of a joint a hammer with soft the brisk. It is possible to take advantage for this purpose as well of a usual hammer, putting blows through the wooden or plastic prorate. It is not necessary to make обстукивание cast cases and fragile components. At occurrence of such difficulties always first of all check, whether weigh fixture it is removed. Try not to apply to division of details a screw-driver or mount, entering them between their interfaced surfaces thus it is easy to damage that further can be at the bottom of occurrence of leaks. If подрычаживания it is impossible to avoid "the become attached" elements of assemblage, use for this purpose the wooden handle from old смётки, but do not forget to remove carefully thus from interfaced surfaces and from within assemblage all formed chips.
After division of details their interfaced surfaces should be smoothed out carefully, having scratched out from them a material of an old lining. The hardened fragments of an old lining can be softened preliminary by means of the converter of a rust or a special chemical compound, and then to remove a scraper. As a scraper the piece of a copper tube with the flattened out and pointed end in this case can be used. Use for this purpose of a copper tube is recommended, as copper usually is softer than materials applied in the car that reduces risk of damage of an interfaced surface. Some linings can be removed by means of a copper brush, however, it is not dependent on the applied method, interfaced surfaces should become absolutely pure and smooth. If for any reason the interfaced surface has appeared scratched, before assemblage of components fill a scratch прокладочным with hermetic. In most cases it is necessary to use not stiffening or semistiffening hermetic.
Councils about removal of hoses
Safety measures which should be observed at removal of hoses, are very close to that at removal of linings. Avoid damage of surfaces of unions and branch pipes which hoses as it can be at the bottom of occurrence of leaks are put on. In a special measure it concerns procedure of removal of hoses of system of cooling. Owing to various chemical reactions occurs прикипание rubbers of hoses to interfaced surfaces of unions and branch pipes. For hose removal first of all ослабьте a collar of its fastening on the union. Then nippers with the sliding hinge seize a hose near to a collar and start to rotate it on the union or a branch pipe to the right-to the left. Continue this procedure to a hose outright release, then remove a hose from the union. The small amount of silicone or other greasing will facilitate procedure if it can be entered into a backlash between the union and a hose. For simplification of procedure of installation of a hose grease an internal surface of a hose and an external surface of the union.
As extreme means, or in case of unequivocal necessity of replacement of a hose, for removal from the union of the end of a hose it is possible to knife it. Thus try not to damage a knife metal of the union or a connecting branch pipe.
In case of damage of a collar of fastening of a hose replace a collar. Collars of braided type usually weaken eventually, therefore, without dependence from their condition, as required it is better to replace them with collars of screw type.
The choice of the good tool is one of the basic requirements for everyone who plans independent performance of procedures of maintenance service or car repairs. At first sight the expenses connected with acquisition of the demanded complete set of tools, can seem too big, however at сравнивании them with the expenses interfaced to performance of procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs on HUNDRED, will appear quite reasonable.
Lists of three toolings are more low resulted. To the owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out of mechanical works, it is necessary to begin with performance of the procedures limited to application of tools from the first list, raising thus the qualification and gradually expanding a range of the applied tool. In process of experience acquisition it is possible to pass to performance more challenges, supplementing a tooling available on hands. After a while the received skills will allow to start performance of more difficult works demanding application of the tool from the second list (for the general and car major repairs). When qualification will start to allow to save considerable means for independent performance of difficult repair procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.
Tooling for routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The list resulted more low includes a minimum of procedures of routine maintenance necessary for performance and insignificant car repairs of tools. Acquisition of the complete set of the combined wrenches (with usual рожковой a head on one end and with накидной on other) Is recommended. Despite the big cost of such complete set in comparison with cost of a set usual рожковых keys, expenses will be justified, since the given keys possess advantages of both types.
Tooling for the general and car major repairs
The tool listed more low is required at carrying out of repair of the engine of the car and it is offered in addition to the first list. The given list includes the complete set of replaceable face heads. At considerable cost, the set of replaceable heads brings invaluable advantage, thanks to the universality and convenience in circulation, - in particular in a combination with entering into the complete set of various type drives. It is recommended to use preferably drives inch section 1/2 (instead of 3/8 inches) since they though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type динамометрических keys (in an ideal, the good mechanic should have at the order both types of drives). Cheaper alternative to the complete set of replaceable face heads is the set of tubular keys.
The special tool
The tools being adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding at using performance of instructions of manufacturers of these tools get to the given list. If the sphere of your activity does not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, acquisition of such tool will be a bad investment of means. It is reasonable to get it by sharing the cost with friends or to hire in car-care centre workshops.
Those tools which can be found in retail trade or which are issued for distribution on representation branches of firms are brought in the list only. Sometimes in the Management text it is possible to find references to such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method, allowing to avoid obligatory application of the remote tool. In a case if to avoid application of the special tool it is impossible, and its acquisition in using is problematic, performance of corresponding works is better to entrust experts HUNDRED.
By preparation for carrying out of procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to get the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of wide works, easier, more reliably also is more economic to buy the complete set of the modern tool on which the tool box is usually applied. Further, for choice expansion, it is possible to buy in addition separate tools, additional complete sets and a tool box большего the size. Gradual expansion of the complete set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in a choice of really necessary tools.
Specialised tool shops are a unique source of acquisition of some special tools, but, irrespective of a source, avoid cheap purchases, in particular at a choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as term of their service for certain will appear short. Expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool as a result will appear incomparably more considerable, than expenses for unitary acquisition of the qualitative goods.
Care of the tool and its storage
The good tool is a valuable investment of means, therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After using the tool before combining it in a storage place, always carefully clear it of a dirt, greasing and the rests of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered on a workplace. After end of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car on presence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers the tool comb fixed in a convenient place on a wall of garage, etc. is ideally suited. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The measuring tool should be stored in inaccessible to influence of corrosion, dry and pure places.
Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of working surfaces of the tool. The shock part бойка a hammer in the course of work is subject расклёпыванию, screw-drivers lose in due course sharpening of the stings. Do not stint to give to a few time for removal расклёпов and a putting in order of cutting edges by means of an emery paper or a file. It is irreversible the worn out or damaged tool replace.
At careful leaving the tool will serve during very long term.
The workplace equipment
Speaking about the tool, it is necessary to recollect the workplace equipment. If carrying out of more serious work, than simple routine maintenance is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable worker of a platform. The important requirement is roof or awning presence.
Whenever possible, any procedures of dismantling should be made on the pure flat workbench (table) of convenient height equipped with a vice. Presence of a vice with soft overlays on the sponges revealing to 100 mm is sufficient.
As already it was mentioned above, on a working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant liquids, cleaners, шпаклёвок, paint and varnish materials, etc. should be equipped
It is necessary to notice that absolutely necessary tool is the electrodrill, hence, the working platform should be equipped by the power supply for its connection.
At last, on a workplace always there should be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure неворсящейся the rags, intended for cleaning of a working platform, the tool and car details.
Never make any works on the open painted surface of the car, use protective overlays on wings, or cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.