Saab 9-5

Since 1997 of release

Repair and car operation



Saab 9-5
- Cars Saab 9-5
   Cars Saab 9-5 - the summary
   Identification numbers of the car
   Acquisition of spare parts
   Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
   Poddomkrachivanie/posting and emergency transportation of the car
   Start of the engine from the auxiliary power supply
   Automobile химикалии, oils and greasings
   Diagnostics of malfunctions
+ Controls and operation receptions
+ Options and car routine maintenance
+ The engine
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
+ The power supply system and release of the fulfilled gases
+ Systems of an electric equipment of the engine
+ Manual box of a gear change
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment





Diagnostics of malfunctions

The description of diagnostics of electronic control systems and codes of malfunctions are resulted in the Head of System of an electric equipment of the engine.

In the given section the most simple scheme of finding-out of the reasons of malfunctions and the refusals occurring in knots and systems of the car is offered. Refusals and their possible reasons are broken into groups on the basis of the relation to certain components or car systems, as for example the engine, cooling system, etc., besides, in the text references to chapters and the sections concerning given problems are given.

Remember that successful end of search of causes of defect is defined by integrity of a complex of good knowledge and the patient, regular approach to problem research. To move always follows from simple to difficult, to lead up each check to the logic end and to try not to pass the obvious facts - everyone can forget to fill fuel in a fuel tank or to leave for the night included lighting devices.

And, at last, always it is necessary to try to make an accurate picture of development of malfunction and to undertake corresponding steps on relapse prevention. If refusal of an electric equipment was the result of infringement of quality of contact, check up at the same time a condition of all other contacts and electric sockets of system. If the same safety lock has fused some times successively, there is no sense in its further replacement - try to find out a cause of a failure. Remember that failure of a minor component can be a sign of infringement of functioning of more important knot or the whole system.

The engine

Indispensable conditions of start of any petrol engine are serviceability of giving of an air-fuel mix in cylinders and adequacy искрообразования on spark plugs.

First of all it is necessary to make sure of serviceability of giving of fuel.

To define, whether the spark is formed, turn out spark plugs, insert them into tips and separately to put to weight. Thus it is not necessary to keep a wire or a tip hands, - take advantage of the isolated flat-nose pliers. Ask the assistant to start the engine. If the spark is absent, try to define a cause of a failure.

The engine is not turned at attempts of its start

  1. Plugs of the battery or ослабло fastening on them of tips of wires are oxidised.
  2. The battery is discharged or faulty. If tips of wires are not oxidised and reliably fixed on battery plugs, turn the ignition key in position ON, then include headlights and-or windscreen cleaners, - if they do not function, - the battery is discharged.
  3. Transmission it is inexact it is established in position P (АТ) or on neutral transfer (Manual transmission), or coupling is not completely squeezed out.
  4. Rupture in a chain of system of start.
  5. The starter gear wheel is jammed in a gear wreath приводного a disk/flywheel.
  6. The traction relay of a starter is faulty.
  7. The starter is faulty.
  8. The ignition switch is faulty.

The engine is turned, but not started

  1. Start is incorrectly made. Operate according to Section Start of the engine and a start of motion.
  2. It is faulty or is not disconnected иммобилизатор the engine.
  3. The emergency switch of the fuel pump is faulty.
  4. The fuel tank is empty, or poor-quality fuel is filled.
  5. The air filter is strongly polluted. Vacuum leaks in elements of giving of air, malfunction in a control system of injection of fuel and ignition take place.
  6. The battery (the engine is turned too slowly) is discharged.
  7. Plugs of the battery or ослабло fastening on them of tips of wires are oxidised.

The petrol engine

  1. The fuel pump is faulty, or its relay is damaged, - on hearing check up pump inclusion at ignition inclusion.
  2. Components of system of ignition are damaged or excessively humidified.
  3. Spark plugs are worn out or faulty, or the candle backlash is incorrectly exposed.
  4. Rupture in a chain of system of start.
  5. Electroconducting of the coil of ignition, or or ослабло fastening of wires on coil plugs is torn off or disconnected.
  6. The safety lock of the block of engine management is damaged, is faulty control system any of gauges of the engine.
  7. Low pressure of a compression.

The diesel engine

  1. The engine is not heated-up: check up serviceability of functioning of system of preheat.
  2. Adjustment of the beginning of giving of fuel is brought down. Check up, make updating.
  3. Atomizers are faulty. Check up. Give consistently накидные nuts - at отдавании nuts of the faulty cylinder engine turns will not fall.
  4. The fuel pump of a high pressure (ТНВД) is faulty. Establish for check obviously serviceable ТНВД.
  5. On electromagnetic (э/м) запорном the valve there is no pressure. Connect to the switch the voltmeter or a sampler on a light-emitting diode. Include ignition. The light-emitting diode should light up. Otherwise it is necessary to find breakage of electroconducting and to eliminate it.
  6. It is faulty э/м запорный the valve. Check up reliability of fastening э/м the switch, check up contacts. Switch on and off ignition. In the switch click should be distributed.
  7. Damage to a line of giving of fuel or air to lines takes place:
    1. Pipelines or hoses are mechanically damaged or littered. Clear fuel pipelines and remove air from lines and the filter;
    2. The fuel filter is littered. Replace filtering element;
    3. In the winter it is necessary to check up the filter and pipelines on ice or wax presence. Put the car in heated garage, add in gasoline system;
    4. Ventilation of a tank or the mesh filter топливозаборника is littered. Clean.

The starter functions without проворачивания the engine

  1. The starter gear wheel is jammed.
  2. Teeths of a gear wheel of a starter or wreath приводного a disk are worn out or damaged.

Start of the cold engine is complicated

(The item the Cold engine see also is started badly, works unstably;)

  1. Low level of a charge of the battery.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of the power supply system, or electric equipment is broken.

Start of the hot engine is complicated

(The item the Heated-up engine see also is badly started, works unstably)

  1. Passableness of the air filter is broken.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of the power supply system, or electric equipment is broken.
  3. Fuel does not arrive to fuel injectors.
  4. Insufficient compression in cylinders.

Starter gearing occurs is too noisy or with difficulty

  1. Teeths of a gear wheel of a starter or wreath приводного a disk are worn out or damaged.
  2. Are lost, or bolts of fastening of a starter are insufficiently tightened.

The engine is started, but at once глохнет

  1. It is faulty иммобилизатор the engine.
  2. Electroconducting, or ослабло fastening of wires on plugs of the coil of ignition or the generator is faulty.
  3. Serviceability of functioning of components of the power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  4. Base installations of the block of management of the engine (ECM) are broken.
  5. Damage to system of release and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases (ОГ) takes place.
  6. Depression losses on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through vacuum hoses take place.

Stability of work of the engine on single turns is broken

The petrol engine

  1. Depression losses take place. Make sure of reliability of a tightening of fixture, check up the fact and quality of fastening on the unions on the inlet pipeline of all vacuum hoses. Hear to the working engine by means of a stethoscope or a piece of a fuel hose - presence of a hissing sound testifies to leak presence. Not less an effective utilisation of a soap solution for check.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of the power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  3. Passableness of the valve of system of operated ventilation картера (PCV) is broken.
  4. Passableness of the air filter is broken.
  5. The fuel pump does not provide giving of enough of fuel to injectors.
  6. Leaks through a lining of a head of cylinders take place, - measure a compression in engine cylinders.
  7. Working ledges of cams of a camshaft are worn out.

The diesel engine

  1. Quality of connections of fuel hoses with ТНВД and the fuel filter is broken. Replace fuel hoses, fix their collars, tighten screws of angular connections.
  2. It is mechanically damaged or ослабло fastening ТНВД. Check up fastening.
  3. Are mixed by junctions of the returnable pipeline and the pipeline of giving of fuel.
  4. Damage to a line of giving of fuel takes place:
    1. Pipelines or hoses are mechanically damaged or littered. Clear fuel pipelines;
    2. The fuel filter is littered. Replace filtering element;
    3. In the winter it is necessary to check up the filter and pipelines on ice or wax presence. Put the car in heated garage, add in gasoline system;
    4. Ventilation of a tank or the mesh filter топливозаборника is littered. Clean.
  5. Adjustment of the beginning of giving of fuel is brought down. Check up, make updating.
  6. Atomizers are faulty. Check up. Turn on consistently накидные nuts - at отворачивании nuts of the faulty cylinder engine turns will not fall.
  7. It is faulty ТНВД. Establish for check obviously serviceable ТНВД.

Admissions in work of cylinders on single turns take place

  1. Spark plugs are worn out or polluted or the candle backlash is incorrectly exposed.
  2. Malfunction of components of the power supply system or electric equipment takes place.
  3. Electroconducting is faulty В/В.
  4. Poor-quality fuel is filled, or passableness of the fuel filter is broken.
  5. Depression losses in the inlet pipeline or through шланговые connections take place.
  6. The low or non-uniformly distributed compression in cylinders.
  7. Work of a control system as the engine is broken.

Admissions in work of cylinders of the engine at car movement on transfer take place

  1. The fuel filter is blocked or power supply system pollution takes place.
  2. Spark plugs are faulty or polluted or the candle backlash is incorrectly exposed.
  3. Malfunction of components of the power supply system or electric equipment takes place.
  4. Electroconducting is faulty В/В.
  5. Components of system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases are faulty.
  6. The low or non-uniformly distributed compression in cylinders.
  7. The ignition system is faulty.
  8. Depression losses on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through vacuum hoses take place.

The engine spontaneously глохнет

  1. Adjustment of turns of idling is broken.
  2. Passableness of the fuel filter is broken, or the moisture or a dirt has got to the power supply system.
  3. Refusal of components / information gauges of the power supply system takes place.
  4. Components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases are faulty.
  5. Spark plugs are faulty or polluted or the candle backlash is incorrectly exposed.
  6. Depression losses on the case of a throttle or through vacuum hoses take place.

The engine does not develop a total power

  1. Malfunction of components of the power supply system or electric equipment takes place.
  2. The air cleaner is littered.
  3. Spark plugs are faulty or the candle backlash is incorrectly exposed.
  4. The ignition coil is faulty.
  5. Level ATF (see the Head of Adjustment and car routine maintenance) has fallen.
  6. Coupling/at revolves.
  7. The fuel filter is blocked and-or the dirt/moisture has got to the power supply system.
  8. Poor-quality fuel is filled.
  9. The adjusting valve турбокомпрессора is damaged.
  10. The low or non-uniformly distributed compression in cylinders.

In addition for the diesel engine

  1. Non-uniform giving of fuel ТНВД on cylinders. Adjust on the heated-up engine.
  2. The moment of the beginning of giving of fuel ТНВД is incorrectly established. Adjust.
  3. The fuel filter or ТНВД (atomizer) is littered. Wash out the preliminary filter, replace an element of the filter of thin clearing, clean a spray or replace the pump (atomizer).
  4. Adjustment of the maximum frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft is broken.

There are claps in system of an admission or shots in release system

  1. Serviceability of functioning of components of the power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  2. Defect in a secondary contour of system of ignition (destruction of insulators of spark plugs or damage В/В of wires) takes place.
  3. The system of injection of fuel requires adjustment, or its components are worn excessively out.
  4. Depression losses on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through vacuum hoses take place.
  5. Gets jammed valves.
  6. The order of connection В/В of wires is broken.

At movement with acceleration or uphill there are detonation sounds

  1. Poor-quality fuel is filled.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of the power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  3. Spark plugs not that type are established.
  4. Base installations ECM are broken.
  5. The detonation gauge is faulty.
  6. Depression losses take place.

The engine continues to work after поворачивания a key in position OFF

  1. Idling turns are excessively high.
  2. Malfunction of an electric equipment or components of a control system of the engine takes place.
  3. The valve of a purge of an adsorber of system of catching of steams of fuel (EVAP) is faulty.
  4. High working temperature of the engine (level ОЖ has fallen, the thermostat is faulty, the radiator is blocked or the water pump is faulty).
  5. Tightness of injectors is broken.

The diesel engine smokes

  1. Black smoke:
    1. The air cleaner is polluted. Replace filtering element;
    2. Inappropriate fuel is applied. Wash out a tank and replace fuel;
    3. The moment of the beginning of giving of fuel ТНВД is incorrectly established.
  2. Dark blue smoke:
    1. Oil burning in the chamber of combustion owing to deterioration of piston rings, high level of oil in an air cleaner, deterioration of epiploons in covers турбокомпрессора, formations of thinnesses in a lining between the block-karterom and турбокомпрессором. Repair the engine, modify oil level, replace epiploons, tighten fastening bolts турбокомпрессора or replace a lining;
    2. Fuel to one of atomizers does not move. Check up on heating of final branch pipes of a collector;
    3. Bad dispersion of fuel by an atomizer because of malfunction of the valve or spray breakage. Grind in the valve or replace an atomizer.
  3. White or brown smoke:
    1. Low temperature in cooling system. Check up the thermostat;
    2. Bad work of atomizers owing to deterioration or spray breakage. Replace a spray.

Engine electric equipment

Decrease in capacity or insufficient charge of the battery

  1. The belt of a drive of the generator is worn out or damaged, or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  2. Level of electrolit is insufficient or the battery is strongly discharged.
  3. Plugs of the battery or ослабло fastening on them of tips of wires are oxidised.
  4. The generator does not provide a demanded current of gymnastics.
  5. Rupture in an electroconducting chain charger a contour.
  6. Short circuit on "weight" of electroconducting creates constant leak of a current developed by the battery.
  7. Internal defect of the battery takes place.

The control lamp of gymnastics does not die away at increase in turns

  1. The tension приводного a belt is weakened.
  2. The regulator of pressure and-or the generator is damaged. Disconnect a wire (D +) from an underside of the generator and include ignition. Further it is necessary to check a condition of a regulator of pressure of the generator.
  3. Generator brushes are worn out.
  4. The wire between the generator and a pressure regulator is damaged.
  5. The combination of devices is faulty.

The control lamp of gymnastics does not light up at поворачивании a key in position ON

  1. The control lamp has failed.
  2. The generator is faulty.
  3. Defect of the printed-circuit board, conducting in the block of a combination of devices or a lamp cartridge takes place.

The control lamp of gymnastics does not die away at поворачивании a key in position OFF

Diodes are punched

Starter

Contact plugs of electroconducting should be reliably fixed and are not oxidised!

  1. If the starter is not turned, at first it is necessary to make sure that on the plug №50 traction relays are present pressure (a minimum 10). At negative results check up a condition of electroconducting of a contour of a current of a starter.
  2. For check of serviceability of operation of a starter at full pressure of the battery execute following actions:
    1. Not including transfers, turn a key in position ON;
    2. Перемкните plugs 30 and 50 starters a wire section not less than 4 мм2.
  3. If the starter works faultlessly, it is necessary to search for a cause of defect in wires to a starter. If the starter does not earn, it should be checked up in the removed condition.

The starter does not rotate at поворачивании a key in position START

  1. The battery is discharged.
  2. Перемкните plugs 30 and 50 starters: if it rotates, check up on breakage brought to the lock of ignition a wire 50, also estimate a condition of the switch of a starter.
  3. The weight wire is torn off, or its quality клеммного connections is broken.
  4. Easing of a current strength owing to infringement of quality or oxidation of contact connections.
  5. There is no pressure on the plug 50 traction relays as a result of electroconducting breakage, or damage of the switch of a starter.

The starter rotates slowly and does not turn a cranked shaft

  1. The battery is discharged.
  2. Summer oil is filled in.
  3. Passage of a current owing to poor-quality contacts is complicated.
  4. Coal brushes do not adjoin to a collector, заедают in directing, are worn out, broken, made oily or polluted.
  5. Insufficient distance between brushes and a collector.
  6. The collector in grooves or has scorched and was made oily.
  7. There is no pressure on the plug 50 (a minimum 8).
  8. The bearing is broken.
  9. The traction relay is faulty.

The starter "seizes", but provides проворачивание the engine only with jerks

  1. The gear wheel drive is faulty.
  2. The gear wheel is polluted.
  3. The gear wreath приводного a disk is damaged.

The starter gear wheel does not leave gearing with a gear wreath of a flywheel/privodnogo of a disk

  1. Components of a drive of a gear wheel are polluted or damaged.
  2. The traction relay is faulty.
  3. The returnable spring ослабла or was broke off.

The starter continues to work after release the ignition key

  1. The traction relay is jammed, - immediately switch off ignition and replace the traction relay.
  2. The ignition lock is not disconnected, - disconnect the battery, replace the lock.

The power supply system

The fuel expense is excessive

  1. The air filter is polluted or blocked.
  2. Pressure of a rating of tyres does not suffice or tyres not are established that size.
  3. The engine has mechanical damages. Check up a compression, in case of need make corresponding regenerative repair.
  4. Turns of idling and the maximum turns of a cranked shaft are excessively high.
  5. Malfunction of components of the power supply system, electric equipment or electronic control takes place.
  6. Leaks in system of an admission of air.
  7. Damages to system of release and decrease in toxicity ОГ take place.

In addition for the diesel engine

  1. Contamination of the returnable pipeline. Blow air the returnable pipeline from ТНВД to a fuel tank.
  2. The engine has mechanical damages. Check up a compression, if necessary repair the engine.

Leaks of fuel and-or a gasoline smell take place

  1. Leaks in lines of giving of fuel or ventilating lines take place.
  2. The fuel tank is overflowed. Refuelling make only before automatic switching-off of a pistol.
  3. Take place leak/evaporation from lines of power supply systems and decrease in toxicity ОГ.

The engine is not started

  1. At starter inclusion the fuel pump (it is not audible noise of its work) does not work. Slightly knock on the pump case to release заевшую a detail. Check up serviceability of giving of pressure on the pump (check up serviceability of a safety lock and reliability of fastening of contact plugs of corresponding electroconducting).
  2. The relay of the fuel pump is faulty.
  3. Залипли valves of injectors. Check up injectors, if necessary replace. Check up pressure giving on injectors.
  4. There is no signal from the ignition or gauge ECT gauge. Check up a condition of its electroconducting, poll memory of system OBD II.
  5. Are damaged, littered or негерметичны fuel pipelines, there are defects of hoses.
  6. The fuel filter is littered.
  7. In an inlet path as a result of tightness infringement подсасывается superfluous air.
  8. Vacuum pipelines are damaged, or infringement of tightness of their landing takes place.
  9. The regulator of pressure of fuel is damaged, - check up residual pressure.
  10. The gauge of position throttle заслонки (TPS) is damaged.
  11. There is no food ECM.
  12. Lines of ventilation of a fuel tank are hammered, the filter in a tank is littered.
  13. Ice or wax presence in the filter or pipelines of the diesel engine.
  14. The preheat system does not work.
  15. The valve отсечки fuel of the diesel engine is damaged.
  16. The moment of the beginning of giving of fuel is brought down.
  17. Atomizers of the diesel engine are damaged. Give by turns накидные nuts and check up, whether the corresponding cylinder works.
  18. It is faulty ТНВД.
The cold engine is started badly, works unstably

  1. Maintenance CO does not correspond to standard requirements, - make corresponding measurement, check up idling turns.
  2. Gauge ECT is faulty.
  3. Pressure of fuel does not correspond to demanded value.
  4. In an inlet path as a result of tightness infringement подсасывается superfluous air.
The heated-up engine is badly started, works unstably

  1. Негерметична system of an admission of air. Check up inlet system. For this purpose leave the engine to idle and moisten places of consolidations and connection on an inlet path with gasoline. If the number of turns increases by short time, eliminate not tight places.
  2. The return valve of the fuel pump is damaged.
  3. Leaks in fuel system.
  4. Fuel elevated pressure in the power supply system.
  5. Malfunction of system EVAP.
  6. It is hammered or crumpled returnable топливопровод to a tank.
  7. Залипли valves of injectors. Check up injectors, if necessary replace. Check up pressure giving on injectors.
  8. There is no signal from the gauge of ignition of the Hall or the gauge of temperature of a cooling liquid. Check up a condition of corresponding electroconducting, poll system OBD II.
  9. In an inlet path as a result of tightness infringement подсасывается superfluous air.
  10. The pressure regulator is damaged, - check up residual pressure.
  11. Gauge TPS is damaged.
  12. There is no food ECM.

The engine works with faults

  1. Connections of electroconducting of the fuel pump are broken from time to time. Check up sockets of electroconducting and safety locks of the fuel pump, gauge MAF and the relay of the fuel pump.
  2. Poor quality of fuel, formation of steam stoppers.
  3. Fuel weak service.
  4. The fuel filter is faulty.
  5. The fuel pump is faulty.
  6. Injectors are faulty.
  7. The ljambda-probe is faulty, infringements in a chain of quality management of a mix or there is no heating of a ljambda-probe.
  8. It is faulty TPS.
  9. The final collector or reception pipe of system of release of the fulfilled gases (there are leaks ОГ) is damaged.
  10. Malfunction of system EVAP.
  11. Залипли valves of injectors. Check up injectors, if necessary replace. Check up pressure giving on injectors.
  12. There is no signal from the gauge of ignition of the Hall or gauge ECT. Check up electroconducting, poll memory ECM on presence of codes of malfunctions.
  13. In an inlet path as a result of tightness infringement подсасывается superfluous air.
  14. Are damaged or негерметичны vacuum pipelines
  15. The pressure regulator is damaged, - check up residual pressure.
  16. There is no food ECM.

The engine works with faults on transitive modes and in an idling mode

  1. Негерметична system of an admission of air. Check up connections of inlet system. Start the engine and moisten with gasoline of connection of components of a soaking up path. If engine turns quickly increase, eliminate a tightness cause of infringement.
  2. Incorrect adjustment of idling. Check up TPS and ljambda-adjustment.

The hot engine is not started

  1. Incorrect adjustment of the maintenance WITH. Check up the maintenance WITH and idling.
  2. Too a high pressure in fuel system, - check up pressure of fuel, if necessary replace a pressure regulator.
  3. The returnable pipeline between a regulator of pressure and a fuel tank is littered or will drive. Clean or replace the pipeline.
  4. The gauge of temperature of the engine is faulty.
  5. Tightness of the power supply system is broken.
  6. Tightness of an inlet air path is broken.

The engine works after deenergizing

  1. Негерметичны injectors. Check up injectors.
  2. On the diesel engine the valve отсечки fuel does not work.

Greasing system

The control lamp does not burn at поворачивании a key in position ON

  1. The gauge of pressure of oil is faulty. Include ignition, disconnect from the gauge a wire and close it on "weight", - if the lamp lights up, replace the gauge.
  2. On the gauge pressure, contacts коррозированы does not move, - check up a condition of corresponding electroconducting.
  3. The control lamp is faulty.
  4. The combination of devices is faulty.

The control lamp does not die away after engine start

Oil перегрето. If the control lamp dies away after gas giving, to do it is required nothing.

The control lamp does not die away after gas giving, or lights up during movement

  1. Oil level has fallen.
  2. Short circuit of electroconducting of the gauge of level of oil takes place.
  3. The gauge is faulty.

Too low pressure of oil upon all turns

  1. Oil level has fallen.
  2. The mesh filter маслозаборника in the pallet картера is littered.
  3. The oil pump is worn out.
  4. Bearings of a cranked shaft are damaged.

Too low pressure of oil upon small turns

The reduktsionnyj valve залип abroach because of pollution.

Too an oil high pressure at frequency of rotation of the engine over 2000 rpm

The reduktsionnyj valve does not open because of pollution.

Cooling system

Overheat

  1. Level of a cooling liquid has fallen.
  2. The belt of a drive of the water pump is worn out or damaged or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  3. Internal channels of a radiator are blocked or is polluted the radiator lattice (is blocked).
  4. The thermostat is faulty.
  5. Are broken or треснуты blades крыльчатки the fan.
  6. The gauge-switch (Д/В) the fan is faulty.
  7. The index of temperature of a cooling liquid (ОЖ) is faulty.
  8. The water pump is faulty.
  9. Does not hold pressure a radiator cover, - make cover check under pressure.

Overcooling

  1. The thermostat is faulty.
  2. Indications of a measuring instrument of temperature ОЖ are inexact.

External leaks of a cooling liquid

  1. Hoses or ослабло their fastening on unions are damaged or destroyed as a result of ageing of a material.
  2. Epiploons of the water pump are spoilt, - the cooling liquid exudes through a control aperture in the pump case.
  3. Leaks from internal channels of a radiator or the tank take place.
  4. Leaks through a drain stopper of the engine or выжимные stoppers of water galleries take place.

Internal leaks of a cooling liquid

Internal leaks ОЖ usually come to light by check of a condition of impellent oil. Examine an edge measuring щупа and internal surfaces of a cover (covers) of cylinders on presence of traces of water and oil foaming.

  1. Leaks through a lining of a head of cylinders take place, – check up system of cooling by pressure.
  2. There are cracks on walls of cylinders or in head moulding.

There are losses of a cooling liquid

  1. In system excessive quantity ОЖ is filled.
  2. ОЖ boils away as a result of an engine overheat.
  3. Internal or external leaks ОЖ take place.
  4. The radiator cover is faulty, - check up a cover pressure.

Circulation of a cooling liquid is broken

  1. The water pump does not function properly. Most easier to make sure of pump functioning, having pressed the top hose of a radiator at the engine working on single turns. If at release a hose the push of a liquid in it is felt, the pump functions regularly.
  2. Passableness of system of cooling is broken - wash out it and fill with a fresh liquid. If necessary remove a radiator and spend it обратнопоточную washing.
  3. It is worn out or damaged приводной a belt of the water pump or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  4. The thermostat is jammed.

Heater

The heater fan does not work

  1. The safety lock of the e/motor of the fan is faulty.
  2. The fan switch is faulty, - check up, whether pressure to preresistors moves, remove and check up the fan switch.
  3. The fan e/motor is faulty. Check up, whether pressure moves on it at the included ignition and the closed switch of the fan, - if pressure moves, replace the motor.

The heater fan does not work on one of steps

The preresistor is faulty.

The heater is not switched off by a regulator

  1. The switch is faulty.
  2. Cables adjusting mixing заслонки are damaged or badly mobile.

Too low capacity of heating

  1. Level of a cooling liquid is insufficient.
  2. Handles of management of a heater have a heavy course, is faulty, - check up management assemblage, if necessary replace corresponding приводной a cable.

Noise in the field of the heater fan

  1. The dirt, leaves has got, - remove the fan and clean it, clear the air channel.
  2. Balancing крыльчатки is broken, the bearing is damaged.

Coupling

Coupling is not switched off (control lever Manual transmission is not translated freely in position of transfer of a backing and back at the pedal of coupling squeezed out to a floor)

Will drive or is damaged a coupling disk (Coupling and power shafts see the Head).

Coupling revolves (engine turns raise without increase in speed of movement of the car)

  1. Coupling disk its frictional overlays are made oily or wiped. Remove coupling and check up a condition of its components (Coupling and power shafts see the Head).
  2. The coupling disk was not earned extra properly. For definitive extra earnings of a new disk it can be demanded from 30 to 40 normal starts of the car.
  3. The coupling disk/basket (Coupling and power shafts see the Head) is worn out press.

At coupling inclusion there is a strong vibration

  1. The coupling disk is made oily. Remove coupling and check up a condition of its components. Eliminate all revealed leaks.
  2. Are worn out шлицы naves of a conducted disk (a coupling disk). Remove coupling and check up a condition of its components.
  3. The disk/basket of coupling or flywheel will drive press. Remove coupling and check up a condition of its components and a flywheel.

Jerks at coupling work

  1. Damage of support of the engine and transmission. Check up, if necessary replace.
  2. Easing of fastening of a transmission to a suspension bracket. Tighten fastening bolts.
  3. Non-uniform прилегание a press disk. Replace a coupling basket.
  4. The cranked shaft is not centered with a transmission. Check up centering.

Squeal or roar arise at full inclusion of coupling (the pedal is released)

It is jammed выжимной the coupling bearing. Remove coupling and check up a bearing condition. Remove all agnails and teases, and grease the bearing before installation into place.

Squeal or roar arise at full deenergizing of coupling (the pedal is squeezed out)

  1. It is worn out or damaged выжимной the bearing (Coupling and power shafts see the Head).
  2. Springs (or diaphragm petals) a press disk in a coupling basket (Coupling and power shafts see the Head) are worn out or damaged.

The coupling pedal remains squeezed out to a floor after it release

The piston of the main thing or the working cylinder of coupling is jammed. Damages of hydrosystem of coupling or выжимного the bearing. Check up a condition, if necessary remove coupling components.

Manual box of a gear change (Manual transmission)

At established on neutral transfer Manual transmission to an engine operating time extraneous noise take place

  1. The bearing of a primary shaft is worn out.
  2. The bearing of a leading gear wheel of a conducted shaft is damaged.
  3. Bearings of an intermediate shaft are worn out.
  4. Washers of adjustment axial люфта an intermediate shaft are worn out or damaged.

Extraneous noise take place in any position Manual transmission

  1. Any of the reasons set forth above and-or:
  2. In Manual transmission the insufficient quantity трансмиссионного oils (its level has fallen) is filled in.

Extraneous noise arise on any concrete transfer

  1. Teeth of a gear wheel of the given transfer is worn out, damaged or chopped off.
  2. The synchronizer of the given transfer is worn out or damaged.

Occurs “соскакивание” Manual transmission from the higher transfer

Between a boat of a box and the engine the dirt or a box has got was displaced in relation to the engine.

At a gear change there are complications

  1. It is not completely squeezed out coupling (is switched off).
  2. Draught of switching is damaged, ослабло its fastening or adjustment is broken. Make careful check of a condition of components, in case of need replace the defective.

Leaks трансмиссионного oils take place

  1. In Manual transmission the excessive quantity трансмиссионного oils is filled. In case of need merge surplus.
  2. Differential epiploons require replacement.

Automatic transmission (АТ)

In view of complexity of design АТ diagnostics of its malfunctions and repair of components is desirable for spending in a car-care centre workshop.

The shared problems connected with functioning of the mechanism of switching

  1. It is possible to carry the following to number of the refusals connected with infringement of adjustment of draught of switching:
    1. Engine start is possible at the positions of transmission which are distinct from “Р” and “N”;
    2. Indications of the indicator of position of transmission differ from really chosen transfer;
    3. The car moves at the transmission established in position “Р” or “N”;
    4. Transfers are switched hardly or any way.
  2. Make adjustment of draught of a gear change.

Transmission revolves, is switched hardly, publishes extraneous noise or does not provide car movement at installation on one of transfers

  1. There is a set of the possible reasons of the problems listed in heading, however under the competence of the mechanic-fan one of them - wrong level трансмиссионной liquids (ATF) gets only.
  2. Before driving away the car in a car-care centre workshop check up level and condition ATF. Modify level ATF or replace it.

Leaks трансмиссионной liquids (ATF) take place

  1. ATF has dark red colour. Traces of its leaks should not be confused to traces of impellent oil which can be taken down on картер transmissions by a running stream of air.
  2. For revealing and localisation of a source of leak first of all remove from a transmission boat all traces of a dirt and greasing. Take advantage approaching обезжиривателем and-or make steam cleaning. Then make on the car a short trip on small speed (that leak traces did not communicate a running stream far from its source). Stop, поддомкратьте the car and by visual survey establish a leak source. More often as those act:
    1. The pallet картера transmissions, - tighten fixing bolts and-or replace a pallet lining;
    2. Tube of gulf ATF, - replace rubber consolidation in a place of an input of a tube in картер transmissions;
    3. Lines ATF, - tighten штуцерные connections or replace lines;
  3. The ventilating tube, - transmission is overflowed and-or water has got to it.

ATF has brown colour or smells as ashes

Level ATF is insufficient.

The mode kickdown does not join by full pressing a pedal (the hill-climbing gear does not join)

  1. Level ATF has fallen.
  2. The control system of the engine is faulty.
  3. The gauge-switch or its electroconducting is faulty.
  4. Adjustment приводного a selector cable is broken.

The engine is not started at any position of the selector or started in the positions which are distinct from Р and R

  1. Adjustment of the gauge-switch of the permission of start is broken.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of a control system is broken by the engine.
  3. Adjustment of a cable of the selector is broken.

Transmission revolves, jerks or noise at a gear change. The car does not move at inclusion of modes D or R

  1. Level ATF has fallen.
  2. The gauge or its electroconducting is faulty.
  3. Serviceability of functioning of a control system is broken by the engine.

Bridges

Extraneous noise

  1. Usual road noise, - updating do not give in.
  2. Noise of tyres, - check up a condition of protectors and pressure of a rating of tyres.
  3. Bearings of wheels, or ослабло effort of their tightening are worn out or damaged.

Vibrations

Check up a condition of bearings of wheels, serially поддомкрачивая a corresponding corner of the car and rotating a wheel manually. Listen thus to sounds starting with the bearing. Remove bearings and check up their condition.

Oil leaks

Epiploons of differentials are damaged.

Brake system

Before coming to the definitive conclusion about presence of problems with brake system make sure that tyres are in a satisfactory condition and are pumped up with demanded pressure, adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels and the car is not broken is not loaded in the non-uniform image.

The increased course of a pedal of a brake

The working contour of a brake path is damaged, - check up system on leaks.

The brake pedal springs and fails

  1. Air has got to a brake path, - pump over system.
  2. Liquid level in tank GTTS has fallen, - make corresponding updating, pump over system.
  3. Formation of vials of steam. It is shown, mainly, at the big loading on brakes. Replace a brake liquid, remove air from system.

Decrease in effect of braking, pedal fails

  1. Tightness of a hydraulic path is broken.
  2. Cuffs in the main thing or working brake cylinders are damaged.
  3. The rubber lining is damaged. Repair a support.

Bad braking, despite the big effort of pressing of a pedal

  1. Brake overlays are made oily.
  2. Are established improper or hardened колодки.
  3. The amplifier of brakes is faulty.
  4. Are worn out brake колодки.

At braking the car withdraws aside

  1. Pressure of a rating of tyres does not correspond to the demanded.
  2. Protectors are worn non-uniformly out.
  3. Brake overlays are made oily.
  4. On one axis are established different brake колодки.
  5. Are worn excessively out brake колодки.
  6. Mines of supports are polluted.
  7. Supports are damaged by corrosion, - make replacement.
  8. Are worn non-uniformly out колодки.

Spontaneous braking

  1. The compensatory aperture in the main brake cylinder (ГТЦ) is littered.
  2. The backlash between приводным a rod and piston GTTS is insufficient.

Brakes heat up during movement

  1. The compensatory aperture in the main brake cylinder is littered.
  2. The backlash between приводным a rod and piston GTTS is insufficient.

Brakes shiver

  1. Are established колодки inadequate type.
  2. Brake disk in places корродирован.
  3. Palpation of a brake disk is excessively great.

Brake колодки do not depart from a brake disk, the wheel is hardly turned manually

Corrosion in cylinders of brake supports. Repair or replace a support.

Non-uniform deterioration колодок

  1. Are established колодки inappropriate type. Replace колодки.
  2. Supports are damaged by corrosion, - make replacement.
  3. The piston stroke is complicated.
  4. Tightness of a path of brake system is broken.

Klinoobraznyj deterioration brake колодок

  1. The brake disk rotates not in parallel a support.
  2. Supports are damaged by corrosion, - make replacement.
  3. Serviceability of functioning of the piston is broken.

Scratch of brakes

  1. Often reason in atmospheric influence (humidity of air). If the scratch appears after long parking at the raised humidity and then vanishes, anything it is not necessary to do.
  2. Are established колодки inappropriate type.
  3. The brake disk rotates not in parallel a support.
  4. The support mine is polluted.
  5. Погнуты fastening springs колодок.
  6. Press springs are stretched.

Pulsation of a pedal of a brake

  1. Sign of normal operation ABS.
  2. Palpation of a brake disk is excessively great.
  3. The brake disk rotates not in parallel a support.

Control lamp ABS lights up during movement

  1. Pressure of a food (more low 10) does not suffice. Check up pressure. Check up, whether the control lamp of the generator after engine start dies away. If everything is all right, check up a belt of a drive of the generator.
  2. Malfunction ABS takes place, - check up a condition and reliability of fixing клеммного connections of weight of the returnable pump (in the hydromodulator).

Suspension bracket and steering

The car withdraws at movement in one of the parties

  1. Tyres are pumped non-uniformly up.
  2. Defect of tyres takes place.
  3. Suspension bracket or steering components are worn excessively out.
  4. Carrying out of adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is required.
  5. Forward brake mechanisms are taken.

Jerks, дёрганье or vibrations take place

  1. Balancing of wheels is broken or there was an ovality of disks.
  2. Bearings of wheels are worn out, ослабло effort of their tightening or adjustment is broken.
  3. Racks-shock-absorbers or other components of a suspension bracket are worn out or damaged.

Excessive rocking of the car / зарывание his nose on turns takes place or at braking

  1. Suspension bracket racks are faulty.
  2. Suspension bracket components are damaged.

Too hardly the steering wheel rotates

  1. Liquid level in the tank of the hydraulic booster of a steering (ГУР) has excessively fallen.
  2. Tyres are pumped incorrectly up.
  3. Hinges of a steering drive are insufficiently greased.
  4. Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  5. ГУР does not develop demanded capacity.

Takes place excessive люфт a steering

  1. Ослабло effort of a tightening of bearings of forward wheels.
  2. Suspension bracket or steering components are worn excessively out.

ГУР does not develop due effort

  1. It is worn out, or it is damaged приводной pump GUR belt, or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  2. Level of liquid ГУР has excessively fallen.
  3. Passableness of hoses or lines of hydraulic system is broken.
  4. In ГУР air has got, - pump over system.

Excessive deterioration of protectors (not in one any area) takes place

  1. Tyres are pumped incorrectly up.
  2. Balancing of wheels is broken.
  3. Disks of wheels are damaged.
  4. Suspension bracket or steering components are worn excessively out.

Excessive deterioration of protectors on external edge takes place

  1. Tyres are pumped incorrectly up.
  2. Turns are too sharply made.
  3. Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels (excessive convergence) is broken.
  4. Will drive or is braided the suspension bracket lever.

Excessive deterioration of protectors on internal edge takes place

  1. Tyres are pumped incorrectly up.
  2. Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels (divergence) is broken.
  3. Components of a steering or ослабло their fastening are damaged.

Local deterioration of a protector takes place

  1. Balancing of wheels is broken.
  2. Are damaged or погнуты disks.
  3. Defect of tyres takes place.

Defects of brushes of a screen wiper

Проскальзывание

  1. Rubber working elements are polluted.
  2. Edges of brushes are shabby, rubber working elements are worn out or broken off.

In the field of clearing the water rests gather at once in drops

The windscreen is polluted by varnish polish or oil.

The brush clears односторонне - in one party well, in another is not present

  1. The rubber working element has unilateral deterioration.
  2. The screen wiper lever is braided, the brush not precisely adjoins to glass.

Crude surfaces

  1. Reliability of fixing of a working element in a brush framework is broken.
  2. The brush adjoins to glass non-uniformly.
  3. Force of pressing by the lever is too small, - slightly grease hinges of levers of a screen wiper and a spring or establish the new lever.

Defects of tyres

Strong deterioration of the tyre on both parties of a working surface

Too low pressure in tyres.

Strong deterioration of the tyre in the middle of a working surface on all circle of a protector

Too a high pressure in tyres.

Non-uniform deterioration of a protector

Static and dynamic disbalance of a wheel, probably, owing to excessive lateral palpation of a disk, too big люфт in bearing hinges.

Non-uniform deterioration in the middle of a protector

Static disbalance of a wheel, probably, owing to excessive vertical palpation.

Strong deterioration of separate sites in the middle of a working surface of a protector

Result of sharp braking.

Sawtooth deterioration of a protector, it is frequent together with rupture of a fabric basis of the tyre invisible outside

Car overload. Check up a condition of internal walls of tyres.

Rubber uvulas at lateral edges of a protector (scaly deterioration)

  1. Adjustment of corners of installation of wheels is broken.
  2. Tyres are worn out.
  3. Shock-absorbers / rack-mount assemblages are faulty.

Formation of agnails on one party of a protector of a forward wheel

  1. Adjustment of a convergence of wheels is broken.
  2. Tyres are worn out.
  3. Frequent movement on wavy surfaces. Fast movement on turns.

Cord ruptures. At first are visible only from within

Moving through sharp stones, blows of tyres, etc. on high speed.

Unilateral deterioration of a working surface of a protector

  1. Check up disorder adjustment.
  2. Malfunction ABS takes place, - check up a condition and reliability of fixing клеммного connections of weight of the returnable pump (in the hydromodulator).








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