Since 1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Cars Saab 9-5
+ Controls and operation receptions
+ Options and car routine maintenance
- The engine
The general information and preparatory operations
Check компрессионного pressure
Check of the engine by means of the vacuum gauge
+ Repair of 4-cylinder petrol engines
+ Repair of 6-cylinder petrol engines
+ Repair of 6-cylinder diesel engines
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
+ The power supply system and release of the fulfilled gases
+ Systems of an electric equipment of the engine
+ Manual box of a gear change
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
The general information and preparatory operations
The general information
Considered cars are completed турбированными with engines DOHC (with the camshafts located in the top part and with 4 valves on the cylinder) volume from 2.0 to 3.0 l. Into their number enter
4-cylinder petrol engines
4-cylinder engines are equipped by two balancing shaft. Balancing shaft are intended for prevention of vibrations from moving parts of the engine, and also for noise decrease at engine work.
The block of cylinders cast, with the pierced cylinders and oil channels, and also tunnels with запрессованными in them aluminium bearings of balancing shaft.
Pistons are made from легкосплавного a material and облужены by tin; their top parts are anodized. Top компрессионное the piston ring has the flat form and is covered by a chrome or molybdenum layer. The maslosyomnoe ring consists of three sections. The piston is strengthened from within and incorporates to a rod by means of a finger. Axial moving of a finger is limited to cutting rings. Shod, the plug under a piston finger and loose leaves шатунных bearings it is possible to replace rods. The top head of a rod the conic. The cranked shaft has 5 radical necks, central from which is used as well for a shaft centering in an axial direction. For greasing of bearings of a shaft in it oil channels are drilled. It is possible to replace loose leaves of radical bearings.
The legkosplavnaja head of cylinders fastens bolts to the block of cylinders. Combustion chambers hemispherical. The cover of a chain of drive ГРМ and a back cover of the block of cylinders fasten to the block with use of means Loctite 518.
Camshafts are resulted from a cranked shaft by a chain with self-regulated натяжителем. Camshafts operate on valves directly, through hydraulic pushers. Pushers are regulated automatically according to change of length of the valve depending on temperature. Pushers work in an oil bath and are greased through the oil channel in a head of the block of cylinders. Valves are made of a steel and have the chromeplated cores. Plates of final valves стеллированы. Натяжитель chains of drive ГРМ it is mounted in a head of the block of cylinders and it is easily accessible.
System of greasing of 4-cylinder engines
In system of greasing of the engine pressure of oil is forced роторным by the pump located in a cover of a chain of drive ГРМ and resulted by cranked shaft. Oil arrives in the pump from the pallet картера through mesh маслозаборник and a tube. The reduktsionnyj valve located in a cover of a chain of drive ГРМ is intended for restriction of pressure of oil by return of surplus of oil on soaking up port of the pump. Oil from the pump through the channel in the block of cylinders goes to the oil filter. In the case of the holder of the oil filter the thermostat opening at temperature 105 hailstones is established. And directing oil through маслоохладитель. After filtering and cooling oil goes to the main channel of the block of cylinders where it is located Д/В pressure of the impellent oil, including corresponding К/Л in a combination of devices at low pressure of oil. Bearings of a cranked shaft are greased through channels in the block and in a shaft while pistons and walls of cylinders are greased разбрызгиванием. In the bottom part of each cylinder it is established маслораспылитель, intended for cooling of the piston by injection of a squirt of oil on the bottom party of the piston. The external bearing on the final party of a balancing shaft is greased through an aperture in the radical bearing №1, and the internal bearing – through an aperture in the radical bearing №1. Both bearings on the inlet party of a balancing shaft are greased through the main oil channel. The additional channel departs from the main channel to a head of the block of cylinders for greasing of camshafts and valves. Through an aperture in one of screws of a head of the block of cylinders oil moves in the drilled channels to all bearings of camshafts and pushers of valves. The pallet картера is made of aluminium and fastens to the bottom part of the block of cylinders. On engine B235R with Manual transmission to the left of the pallet there is a strengthening adjoining to Manual transmission. The oil filter is located on the final party of a head of the block of cylinders, in the special holder from whom hoses to маслоохладителю depart. In the oil filter it is established перепускной the valve opening at pollution of the filter.
Arrangement of support of 4-cylinder engines
For clearing of vibrations at engine work on turns from single to 1800 rpm hydraulic support of the engine (back and right a lobby) are used. These support offer following advantages:
The hydraulic support consists of two chambers filled with a special liquid. Between chambers there is a membrane and the channel. Resistance of a support grows with loading growth on it.
The petrol 6-cylinder engine
3.0 l V-shaped 6-cylinder 24-klapannyj the petrol engine are established cross-section in an impellent compartment.
All camshafts are resulted by a gear belt, with automatic adjustment of a tension (means натяжителя with a roller). Inlet and final valves are resulted from camshafts through pushers. The mechanism of a drive of valves is similar described for 4-cylinder engines. In addition each head is equipped by two nozzles of a purge of air, intended for decrease in noise of hydraulic pushers of valves after engine start. Cogwheels of camshafts of a back head of cylinders are interchangeable, no less than cogwheels of shaft of a forward head of cylinders.
System of greasing of petrol engine V6
The greasing system is similar described for 4-cylinder engines. Oil for greasing of piston fingers is delivered to them through channels in cranked to a shaft and a rod.
Arrangement of support of petrol engine V6
For engine fastening it is used three support, from which back and right – hydraulic type (the description for 4-cylinder engines see).
The diesel 6-cylinder engine
3.0 l V-shaped 6-cylinder 24-klapannyj the diesel engine with direct injection of fuel are established cross-section in an impellent compartment.
The engine is completely made of aluminium. Polishing of the block and a head of cylinders are not admissible.
Fuel moves to atomizers on the general fuel highway. Atomizers spray certain quantity of fuel and at a given time, separately for each cylinder. The quantity and the moment of giving of fuel pay off the electronic block of engine management (ECM). The throttle case, thus, is absent as superfluous. Is absent as well ignition system.
Directing and saddles of valves it is possible to replace. Pushers of valves – mechanical, клапанный the backlash is regulated manually by selection of an adjusting washer of the necessary thickness. Atomizers are located on the centre of cylinders. Valves are located at an angle 8 hailstones. To each other that provides the most compact and effective chamber of combustion.
For consolidation of connection of the block with a head of cylinders the metal lining is used.
Inlet camshafts are resulted by a gear belt from the fuel pump of a high pressure (ТНВД). The belt is located behind the top plastic cover. Final camshafts are resulted from the inlet. Behind the bottom cover the oil pump resulted directly from a cranked shaft, and also the water pump and ТНВД, resulted from a cranked shaft through gear wheels are located. The tension of a belt of drive ГРМ is automatically supported натяжителем эксцентрикового type.
The cranked shaft leans against 4 radical bearings the third of which plays a role of the persistent bearing.
The vacuum pump is located on back to a number of cylinders, from outside a flywheel. The drive of the vacuum pump is carried out from an inlet camshaft.
The scheme of system of greasing of the diesel engine
The system of greasing of the diesel engine is similar to system of greasing of petrol engines. Gear wheels of camshafts are greased through bearings of camshafts. Pistons and piston fingers are greased with means маслораспылителей and разбрызгиванием from the pallet картера.
The pallet картера consists from bottom (steel) and top (aluminium) sections. In the top section are located маслозаборник and the gauge of pressure of impellent oil. The oil filter is established in the case combining also маслоохладитель.
The engine is established on four support, two of which – hydraulic type.
Arrangement of support of the diesel engine
Before carrying out of any procedures of service of the engine make cleaning of an impellent compartment and external surfaces of the power unit with application of special solvent. Such processing will allow to avoid hit of a dirt in the engine.
In case of need, forthcoming work defined by character, it is possible to remove a cowl for the purpose of maintenance of freedom of access to components subject to service (the Body see the Head). In order to avoid casual damage of a paint and varnish covering cover car wings with special covers or old blankets.
It is possible to consider the excessive expense of impellent oil as a signal about necessity of carrying out of check of a condition of piston rings, маслоотражательных caps and-or directing plugs of valves. Naturally, first of all, it is necessary to make sure that oil losses are not connected with development of its external leaks. Check up a compression in cylinders (the Section Check компрессионного pressure see) to define the general condition of the engine.
Loss of developed capacity, infringement of stability of turns, excessive noise клапанного the mechanism and the raised expense of fuel usually are characteristic enough signs of necessity of performance of major repairs of the engine, in particular, when all these factors are shown simultaneously. If performance of a full spectrum of options does not help with elimination of problems, carrying out of the general mechanical works on engine restoration will be a unique way out.
Major repairs of the power unit mean restoration of all its working parametres to level, characteristic for the new engine. During major repairs replacement of piston rings and restoration of mirrors of cylinders (проточка and-or хонингование) is without fail made. Replacement radical and шатунных bearings of a cranked shaft is usually carried out, can be in case of need made проточка and restoration of its necks. Service of the valves which condition at the moment of occurrence of necessity for performance of major repairs of the engine almost for certain leaves much to be desired is without fail carried out. In parallel with carrying out of the general repair of the power unit regenerative repair of a starter and the generator is usually made also.
Engine major repairs at all do not demand from the executor of high vocational training, however take away a lot of time. It is necessary to plan refusal of using the car for the term of not less than two weeks, in particular in need of the reference behind the help in a mechanical workshop for the purpose of performance of a separate recovery work.
The most part of works can be executed with application of a usual set of the metalwork tool, however some of checks by definition of suitability of separate components to the further use demand application of the precision measuring equipment. In doubtful situations address for the help to experts HUNDRED.
In summary it is possible to notice that all efforts on performance of regenerative repair of the worn out components will appear spent for nothing at the negligent relation to the requirement of observance of cleanliness at unit assemblage.